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Malaysian Management Journal (MMJ) Vol. 21, December 2017

Housing Affordability Woes and The State Of Developed Underdevelopment In Penang Island
Khoo Suet Leng, Nor Malina Malek & Suziana Mat Yasin
Department of Development Planning and Management
School of Social Sciences
Universiti Sains Malaysia
Abstract | Full Text
Housing affordability is a critical issue in Malaysia. This issue is doubly challenging in states like Penang where its topographical make-up is divided into a mainland and an island. The dwindling stock of land in Penang Island has inevitably pushed up house prices. To compound this problem, a combination of policy and socio-economic changes has collectively hiked up the cost of buying a house on the island. This has hindered equal opportunities towards home ownership. Based on a development perspective, this paper attempts to contextualize current housing woes in Penang Island. This paper argues that Penang Island’s physical urban environment has ‘developed’ in terms of aesthetic values and appreciated in monetary terms but actual development in terms of a person’s ‘capability to function’ and enjoy a better quality of life is not progressing in tandem. A critical state of developed underdevelopment is currently unfolding on the island in terms of housing affordability. The recommendations of this paper will contribute towards shaping pragmatic housing policies.
Keywords: Housing affordability, Home ownership, Penang Island, Quality of life, Capability to function.

Social Competencies, Job Performance and Cultural Adjustment Among Expatriate Assignees In Malaysia
Jugindar Singh Kartar Singh
Asia Pacific University
Nik Hasnaa Nik Mahmood
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
Abstract | Full Text
This study investigates the relationships and impact of social competencies on job performance and the mediating role of cultural adjustment of expatriates engaged in the ICT sector in Malaysia. Based on a quantitative survey with a sample of 301 expatriates, the findings of this study revealed that social competencies have a positive relationship with job performance. The findings also support the role of cultural adjustment in mediating the relationship between social competencies and job performance. The findings of this study support the results from some earlier studies and also bring out several new ideas such as the importance of social competencies. The findings of this study will significantly contribute to the advancement of knowledge in job performance and cultural adjustment and it is evident that expatriate social competencies facilitate expatriates’ job performance and cultural adjustment. The implications are in the areas of expatriate selection, training and support practices. It is recommended that organizations consider social competencies and cultural adjustment and implement suitable HR policies to select the right candidates, train and motivate them. The results of this study will add to the current body of knowledge as well as assist in creating foundational solutions to ensure success in expatriate global assignments in Malaysia.
KeywordsCultural adjustment, Performance, Expatriate and competencies.

The Effect Of Corporate Governance Mechanisms On The Valuation Of Comprehensive Income Reporting In Nigeria
Aliyu Baba Usman
Department of Accounting, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University,
New Bussa Campus, Nigeria
Noor Afza Amran
Hasnah Shaari
Tunku Puteri Intan Safinaz (TISSA-UUM),
Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 UUM Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia
Abstract | Full Text
This study investigates the influence of corporate governance mechanisms on the valuation of other comprehensive income in Nigeria. The sample of this study consists of 327 firm-year observations comprising of 117 firms listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange for the period of 2010 to 2014. The findings reveal that there is a positive influence of corporate governance mechanism on the investors’ pricing of other comprehensive income. Findings show that for firms with weak governance mechanisms, other comprehensive income is value relevant, but is more significantly priced for strong governance firms. This study finds a similar result when other comprehensive income interact with individual elements of corporate governance factor. Therefore, corporate governance mitigates reliability concerns associated with fair value earnings, agency cost will be minimised and investors are more likely to view other comprehensive income as more value relevant. It is therefore recommended that reporting entities should pursue best corporate governance practices in order to enhance investors’ confidence in the reliability of other comprehensive income.
KeywordsCorporate governance, Other comprehensive income, Value relevance.

Hock-Eam Lim
Woei-Chyuan Wong
Nur Adiana Hiau Abdullah
School of Economics, Finance and Banking
Universiti Utara Malaysia

Abstract | Full Text
The Chinese society is well-known for its obsession towards number “8”. Eight is the luckiest number to the Chinese as its pronunciation resembles the meaning of prosperity, wealth or fortune. Prior research estimating the marginal effect of “8” on winning bid prices of car plate numbers attributes the positive impact of “8” on bid prices to superstitious value. However, the estimated positive effect could also be attributed to Veblen goods and future resale consideration. Thus, an upward bias might exist in prior research’s estimation. This study aimed to circumvent this issue by comparing the marginal effect of all “8” car plate numbers of Malaysian Chinese bidders and their non-Chinese counterparts who are neutral towards number “8”. Descriptive statistics results reveal that the majority of all “8” plates are won by Chinese bidders. However, regression results reveal that Chinese bidders have a lower estimated marginal effect of number eight than their non-Chinese counterparts. This implies that while number “8” is popular among the Chinese, this popularity does not translate into higher bidding prices. These findings suggest the roles of Veblen goods and future resale consideration should not be ignored in estimating the superstitious value in car plate numbers.

Keywords: Car plate number, Superstitions in number, Veblen good effect.

Shamsudeen Ladan Shagari
Faculty of Social Management Science
Bauchi State University Gadau, Nigeria

Natrah Saad
Tunku Puteri Intan Safinaz School of Accountancy
Universiti Utara Malaysia

Abstract | Full Text
This study investigates the determinants of tax administration efficiency in Nigeria. The Nigerian tax system is faced with challenges, such as loss of revenue through high level of tax defaulters from both the legislative arm of the government and public institutions, corruption and financial irregularities and limited government administrative capability. Therefore, current study examines the influence of autonomy of the State Board of Internal Revenue (SBIR), use of information and communications technology, public enlightenment, strong auditing practice, motivation and incentives and perceived corruption on tax administration efficiency in Nigeria. A total of 124 questionnaires were collected out of 144 questionnaires that were administered. The study revealed that there is a significant positive relationship between tax administration efficiency and: autonomy of board of internal revenue, information and communications technology and public enlightenment. However, findings from the study revealed that there is insignificant relationship between tax administration efficiency and strong audit practice and motivation and incentives and perceived corruption. Based on the findings above, the study recommended that government should put an effective measure in place to collect taxes from tax defaulters across the different groups of the economy. 

Keywords: Tax administration efficiency, Autonomy, Strong audit practice, Perceived corruption.

Rabia Rasheed 
Maria Abdul Rahman
Rashid Bhutta
School of Business Management
UUM College of Business
Universiti Utara Malaysia

Abstract | Full Text
Given the key role of owner managers in the decision making process, understanding socio-psychological factors of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) financial behavior has often been prescribed as an important research direction. In accordance with the above, present study in context of Pakistan investigated the attitudinal factors of SMEs owner-managers’ towards adoption of financial products. The attitudinal factors are depicted as perceived relative advantage, perceived compatibility and perceived complexity. The proposed model has been adapted, which is composed of decomposed theory of planned behavior (DTPB) and decomposed attitudinal factors of SMEs owner-manager to investigate their intention to adopt financial products in Pakistan. Relying on a survey research design, and following stratified sampling method, after screening process 285 owner-managers responses have been considered for further analysis. The findings revealed that perceived relative advantage and perceived compatibility possess significant positive relationships with owner-manager attitude towards adoption of financial product which further significantly predicts behavioral intention. Moreover, perceived complexity has negative but significant relationship with SMEs owner-manager attitude towards adoption of financial products. SMEs owner-managers exhibit serious concern towards formal financial products adoption, the policy makers are suggested to focus on creating specialized products which are useful, compatible and easy to understand for SMEs owner-manager in Pakistan.

Keywords: Decomposed theory of planned behavior, SMEs Owner-manager, Attitudinal Factors, Access to finance.

Asnidar Hanim Yusuf
Idris Oyewale Oyelakin 
Syadiyah Abdul Shukor
Ummi Salwa Ahmad Bustamam
Faculty of Economics and Muamalat
Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia

Abstract | Full Text
Halal certification plays a key role in food and beverages industry in Malaysia. This certification indicates that the food product is assured in terms of religious compliance, safety and hygiene. There is limited study conducted from the viewpoint of business owners and what benefit it can do in terms of their business development. This research was conducted to associate the role of Halal certification and business performance in four selected Kopitiams around Selangor from various categories; Muslim Halal certified, Muslim not Halal certified, non Muslim Halal certified and non Muslim not Halal certified. Business operators and consumers of the said Kopitiams were interviewed and all case studies were analyzed using descriptive and interpretive analysis. The findings are in line with theories used which are Resource Based View, Theory of Reasoned Action and Theory of Perceived Behavior. The outcome of the study concluded that Halal certificate does bring benefit in their business performance in terms of Islamic view, social contribution, financial capital and human capital. Halal certification is a motivation to gain religious benefit, customer satisfaction, provide more job opportunities and avoid social problems. In financial capital, it serves as an internal resource to boost sales and influence customers’ purchasing decision. For human capital, Halal certificate can increase skill and development of the companies’ human resources. 

Keywords: Business Performance (BP), Halal Certification (HC), Resource Based View (RBV), Theory of Perceived Behavior (TPB), Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA).