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Malaysian Management Journal (MMJ) Vol. 20, December 2016

Quality Assurances Practices, Training Needs and International Students Mobility: Analysing the Nexuses
Usman Abbo & Adamu Bashir
Othman Yeop Abdullah Graduate
School of Business
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
The role of education’s quality in determining international students’ choice of study destination was discussed by several studies. However, it only seems to have gained a huge prominence recently by constituting a theme in the quality management field involving empirical studies. In spite of such prominence the theme does not seems to provide sufficient empirical evidence forging a nexus between quality assurance practices, training needs and international student’s mobility. This research work therefore attempts to fill this gap by examining how the search for quality education and training needs satisfaction play role in international student’s mobility. Six dimensions of quality assurance in education were identified through extensive literature reviewed, three dimensions of training needs were equally revealed by the literature. Nine hypotheses were thus developed using these dimensions with the view to explain the relationship among the variables involved. The primary data for this study was obtained through a cross-sectional survey of International students in University Utara Malaysia with the aid of questionnaires, where a total of 150 respondents were selected randomly. Partial Least Squares (PLS) method was adopted in analysing the collected data with smartPLS 2.0 to determine the relationship involved. The result supported the relationship between organizational needs, Tangibility of facilities, Nature of service delivery and international student’s mobility, while the other six relationships were not supported.
Keywords: International students, quality assurance, training needs, education, Malaysia

Does Global Financial Crisis Integrate the Regional Market in Asia More Strongly?
Iti Vyas & Alok Kumar Mishra
School of Economics
University of Hyderabad
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
The aim of this paper is to analyze whether the worldwide financial crisis integrates the regional markets in Asia more strongly. Secondly, it is also to examine whether the integration of regional markets in Asia necessarily leads to a weak form of market efficiency. To examine this we have considered the different broad based and liquid stock indices such as the Sensex and BSE 100 from the Bombay Stock Exchange; the S&P CNX Nifty from the National Stock Exchange, representing India; the Hang Seng Index from the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, representing China; the Kuala Lumpur Composite Index (KLSE), Bursa Malaysia representing Malaysia; the Nikkei 225 from the Tokyo Stock Exchange representing Japan, and the Straits Times Index (STI) from the Singapore Exchange representing Singapore. The study considered the daily data spanning from 4th January 1994 to 2nd May 2012. The full sample period was split into three forms such as the whole sample, the Global financial crisis and the post global financial crisis. The short term interaction was studied by using Toda Yamamoto’s procedure of Granger’s Causality in VAR Block Exogenity form and the long run equilibrium relationship was tested by applying the Johansen Maximum Likelihood procedure. And so the paper explored the possible, integrating relationship at the volatility level among the regional stock indices by applying the ARCH school of models. Finally, the Random Walk Hypothesis was tested by employing the Chow-Denning (1993) and the Lo and Mackinlay (1988) multiple variance ratio test to examine the efficiency of the market. The major findings of the study indicated that the worldwide financial crisis integrates the regional markets in Asia more strongly in the short term from 2007 onwards. There is no long run equilibrium relationship among the regional stock markets. The study also found that the integration of the financial market does not necessarily contribute to market efficiency.
Keywords: Global Financial Crisis, multiple variance ratio, vertical integration, volatility spillovers, market efficiency
JEL Classification: G15, C32

Perceived Service Orientation, Economic Factors, Psychological Factors and Tax Compliance: Evidence From Nigerian SMEs
Augustine Ayuba
Faculty of Social & Management Science
Kaduna State University
Natrah Saad & Zaimah Zainol Ariffin
Tunku Puteri Intan Safinaz
School of Accountancy
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
This study examined the influence of economic and , psychological factors, as well as the moderating role of perceived service orientation on the tax compliance of Nigerian SMEs owners / managers. Three hundred and twenty one SME owners /managers participated in the survey. The Partial Least Squares (PLS) path modeling was employed to analyze the data. The results showed that the probability of detection, incentives, and the public governance quality had significant positive effects on tax compliance, while tax complexity had a significant negative effect on tax compliance. On the contrary, the results showed that tax rates and tax knowledge had no significant effect on tax compliance. Furthermore, the findings of the moderating effect revealed that perceived service orientation only moderated tax rates and incentives, while in moderating effect was discovered on the relationship between the probability of detection, tax complexity, tax knowledge and public governance quality. The implications for tax revenue authorities and other policy-makers were also discussed.
Keywords: Nigerian SMEs, economic factors, psychological factors, perceived service orientation, tax compliance

Company Characteristics, Dominant Personalities in Board Committees and Internet Financial Disclosures by Malaysian Listed Companies
Ali Saleh Alarussi
Tunku Puteri Intan Safinaz
School of Accountancy
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Dhiaa Shamkhi
Al-Zahra College for Women, Oman
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
This paper investigates whether the internet financial disclosure can be explained by a company’s characteristics and the dominant personalities in board committees of the Malaysian listed companies. Ten hypotheses were tested using data collected from 194 Malaysian listed companies’ websites. Specifically, this paper examines the relationship between the internet financial disclosures (IFD) and the variables, namely internationality, leverage, foreign shareholders, level of technology, firm age, number of shareholders, listing status, dominant personalities in the audit committee, and chairmen of audit and nomination committees. It is found that the level of technology, firm age, number of shareholders and listing status significantly affect the level of IFD. However, the dominant personalities in the audit and nomination committees affect negatively the level of IFD in Malaysia. The study provides some evidence to support the signaling theory and the cost and benefit hypothesis in relation to internet disclosure.
Keywords: Internet reporting, dominant personalities, board committees, internationality

The Effect of Brand Trust and Brand Community Commitment on Online Brand Evangelism Behaviour
Hasnizam Shaari & Intan Shafinaz Ahmad
School of Business Management
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
In line with social media development, the online brand community becomes an alternative media that could contribute to overall brand success or vice versa. Among others, the online brand community could significantly affect brand evangelism behaviors. This study attempts to extend the understanding on how members’ brand community commitment influences brand evangelism which is considered as an extra-role behavior from the members. The study among 167 members of the online brand communities revealed that brand evangelism is explained by the unidimensional construct. The result indicates that trust towards the online brand community and brand community commitment significantly affect brand evangelism. Implication and future research direction are also highlighted at the end of this article.
Keywords: Marketing, brand community commitment, brand evangelism, social media

The Mediating Effect of Brand Trust on The Influence of Communication, Price, and Product Quality on Consumer Purchase Behaviour in a Less-Developed Country
Jamal Mohammed Esmail Al-Ekam
School of Business Management
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Brand trust is one of the key elements in brand building and securing customer loyalty, based on relationship marketing factors. The aim of this research was to examine the influence of perceived product price, perceived product quality and communication on brand trust, and the effect of brand trust on consumer purchase behaviour based on the relationship theory perspective. The research instrument was developed based on items taken from previous studies. Questionnaires were distributed to 1400 consumers in 10 primary and secondary schools in three towns in Sanaa, Ibb, and Aden in Yemen. Only 711 questionnaires were used for statistical analysis, using Partial Least Squares (PLS–SEM). Results indicated that trust has a positive significant impact on purchase behaviour. Trust is also a mediator between communication and purchase behaviour, and between perceived quality and purchase behaviour. In addition, this study showed that both perceived product quality and communication positively influence building brand trust. The constructed model has a good goodness-of-fit index. This research also discussed practical implications and applications in developing and less-developed countries.
Keywords: Building brand trust, perceived quality, perceived communication, brand trust to purchase behaviour

Relationship Between Integrated Marketing Capability on Sales and Brand Performance: Moderation Roles of IMC Performance
Mohamadreza Hamidizadeh, Mohsen Sanati & Atefeh Ghomi Avili
Shahid Beheshti University of Iran
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Due to in the fierce competition in the fast moving consumers good (FMCG) industry and lack of growing demand in recent years in this industry, firms are now looking for more efficient and effective ways of creating value for their brands. In this regard, integrated marketing communication (IMC) is a newly introduced concept which has not been thoroughly investigated in the FMCG market of Iran. Therefore, the aims of this study are twofold, first, is to empirically examine the influence of IMC capability of the organization on the brand and sales performance. Second, is the investigation of the moderation role of the IMC performance which is not covered in the literature. The detergent industry was investigated by choosing one of the biggest detergent players in Iran, and the sample of brand, advertising and marketing managers, and experts were considered for distribution of the questionnaire. The results support the effect of IMC capability on sales and brand performance. Moreover, the analysis showed support for moderation role of IMC performance. Managerial implications are discussed at the last section of this research.
Keywords: IMC capability, IMC performance, Brand performance, Sales performance

An Empirical Study on the Factors Affecting Online Retail Brand Engagement and Purchase Intention
Subhajit Bhattacharya
Department of Marketing Management
Xavier Institute of Social Service
Vijeta Anand
Jharkhand Rai University
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
The Consumer buying criterion has reformed massively in this present digitized marketing environment. The growing importance & popularity of online buying is very much substantial and quite evident in India these days. This study attempts to investigate the relationships between brand trust, social linkages, brand awareness, online retail brand engagement and final brand selection & purchase intention. The current research also examined the linkages among brand trust, social linkages, brand awareness and online retail brand engagement and in creating the final brand selection & purchase intention relating to Indian online retail market. Data from 252 observations were analyzed using the structural equation modeling method. The outcome of this research paper shows how an effective online retail brand engagement environment can be created to boost the final brand selection & purchase intention in the Indian online market place.
Keywords: Online shopping behaviour, online buying experience, online trust, social linkages, online retail brand engagement