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Malaysian Management Journal (MMJ) Vol. 17, 2013

An Assessment of Women Entrepreneurship Performance in Nigeria
Safiyyah Muhammad Aliyu
Department of Business Administration
Faculty of Management Sciences
University of Abuja, Nigeria
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Entrepreneurial activities are important factors in creating and increasing employment opportunities and fuelling economic growth. Entrepreneurship is an important source of job creation and opening career opportunities for both women and men. However, women are less likely to have successful enterprises or businesses than men. This paper is aimed at assessing women entrepreneurship in Nigeria: their present state of involvement in comparison to the male entrepreneurs, their challenges, contributions and performance in the formal and informal business sector of the economy. The paper employed the descriptive method of analysis. An inductive methodology involving observation, collection of secondary data and the analysis of such data was employed. To this end, a lot was devoted to the presentation and analysis of data obtained from the Small and Medium Enterprise Development Agency of Nigeria, the National Bureau of Statistics and the Federal Office of Statistics. It was discovered that women participate more in the micro business (informal sector) constituting 42.1% of the ownership structure. Their performance constitutes 13.57% in the formal sector as against the male entrepreneurs at 86.43%. Their poor performance and contribution are a result of the constraints they face. It was also discovered that their performance was higher in the Trade and Agricultural Sector in 1997 but higher in the Education and Service Sector by 2012. Among others, it is recommended that good practice in supporting women entrepreneurship should be initiated by the government in the form of training courses, advisory services or creating awareness campaigns.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship, women entrepreneurs, entrepreneurial activities, economic growth.

Indian Women in Technology: An Empirical Analysis of Role Conflict
B. Aiswarya
Department of Management Studies
Sathyabama University Chennai
Tamil Nadu, India
G. Ramasundaram
Department of Management Studies
St. Joseph’s College of Engineering, Chennai
Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
An important issue that our society has been facing in the recent past is the changing work and family roles of Indian women. Woman, today, function within multiple roles simultaneously operating in both work and family domains as a mother, spouse, housekeeper, as well as maintaining full-time employment outside the home. The relationship between these dual roles has thus become a topic of interest among organizational researchers. This study deals with selected antecedents and their influence on the role conflict among Indian women in technology. A sample size of 598 Indian women in technology was taken for the study and the result shows the occurrence of work-family conflict. Three predominant factors that influence the work-family conflict time-dimension are work exhaustion, work thought interference and perceived workload in the order of merit.
Keywords: Role conflict, employed women, information technology, dimensions of role conflict.

Executives’ Fringe Benefits in Langkawi Hotels
Rozila Ahmad
School of Tourism, Hospitality & Environmental Management
UUM College of Law, Government and International Studies
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
An important element of human resources, compensation is an effective tool to attract and retain skilled employees. Despite its crucial importance the literature concerning executive compensation in the hotel industry is very few especially those focusing on fringe benefits. To fill the gap in the hotel human resources literature, this study assessed the level of fringe benefits provided to executives in the hotel industry. The purpose of this empirical study was to gain information regarding executives’ compensation in the industry. Stratified random sampling technique was used to ensure that the findings represented hotels of various star-ratings. A total of 250 questionnaires were distributed to the ratio of 6:3:4 to three-, four- and five-star hotels and 104 were returned. The findings revealed that there is a statistically significant difference in the fringe benefits given between three -, four - and five-star hotels, and the star rating of hotels positively correlates with the level of fringe benefits provided to hotel executives.
Keywords: Compensation, fringe benefits, executives, hotel, human resource management, Malaysia.

The Formation of Separate Risk Management Committee and the Effect on Modified Audit Report
Suhaimi Ishak & Mohd ‘Atef Md Yusof
School of Accountancy
UUM College of Business
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
The aim of the paper is to examine the formation of a separate risk management committee (RMC) and its effect on the modified audit report among the non-banking and financial companies listed in Bursa Malaysia. Data was collected from the annual reports of a sample of 300 companies from 2004 until 2009. Both descriptive and multivariate analyses were employed to address the research objectives. The results indicate that a separate RMC is negatively related with the acceptance of the modified audit report. Further, the RMC’s members with independent non-executive status and members with accounting and financial background will also probably reduce the acceptance of the modified audit report. However, losses recorded for previous financial years are likely to increase the issuance of modified audit report by the auditor. The period of auditor engagement with the client and client size will also affect the modified audit report. The findings provide empirical evidence on the development and importance of a separate RMC for the modified audit report.
Keywords: Separate risk management committee, modified audit report, Malaysia.

Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction: A Comparative Study of an Indian Public VS Private Bank
Dharmendra Singh
American University of Ras Al Khaimah
United Arab Emirates
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
This study focuses on the service quality and customer satisfaction among the private and public sector banks in India. Today customers are supposed to have awareness about the financial services provided by the banking sector. An attempt has therefore, been made in this paper to quantify the ‘awareness level’ of the customers and analyze the ‘service quality experience’ of the customers from their banks. The study has been carried out to compare the service quality experienced by customers of the public and private sector banks and to study the link between service quality and customer satisfaction. For that reason a well structured questionnaire was used to collect the views of customers on various service dimensions and the satisfaction of the customers regarding the services offered by the public and private sector banks. Various statistical tools like ANOVA, Factor Analysis and Multiple Regressions were used for analyzing the data collected on five service dimensions of SERVQUAL and satisfaction of customers. The results indicate that the private sector bank was better in terms of providing services and creating awareness about their products and services. The study also proves that an increase in service quality will most likely lead to customer satisfaction.
Keywords: Banking sector, customer satisfaction, service quality, awareness.

The Moderating Effect of Technology Utilization on Project Management Function and Project Performance
Hafnidar Abdul Rani, Che Sobry Abdullah & Shahimi Mohtar
School of Technology Management & Logistics
UUM College of Business
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
This study investigated the moderating effects of technology utilization on the relationship between project management function and project performance. The project management function element is operationalized by nine constructs and the technology utilization element examined in this study focuses on three factors. Data was collected using the questionnaire survey approach. This study employed the stratified random sampling procedure in selecting businesses and organizations, that included the construction industry in the sample. Four hundred and forty eight Aceh construction organizations participated in this study. Partial correlation analysis was utilized for hypotheses testing. In general, the result of the partial correlation analysis showed that technology utilization moderated the relationship between seven of the nine functions of project management and overall project performance. Individually, these three variables of technology utilization did not moderate the relationship between communication management and cost performance. The outcome of this study provided vital information on the relationship between project management function, technology utilization and project performance in the Aceh construction organizations. This study also provided an insight into further understanding of the issue of interface between project management function, technology utilization and project performance.
Keywords: Project management, project management function, technology utilization, project performance, partial correlation.

Work Stress Among Bank Employees: A Case Study of Bank Rakyat
Amer Darus, Fais Ahmad, Aliah Roslan & Muhamad Nizam Jali
School of Business Management
UUM College of Business
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
The extent of stress faced by skilled employees in organizations is often substantial. In several professions, stress is intrinsic to the duty itself, where competing demands, challenges and pressures escort the duty and therefore cannot be avoided. On the organizational level, stress exists in every company. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that contribute of to work stress among Bank Rakyat’s employees. This study also aimed to determine if there were any statistically significant differences in the respondents’ level of work stress by demographic factors (gender, status, education qualification, job position and length of service). The survey was carried out at 12 branches of Bank Rakyat in the northern region of the Malaysian Peninsula. A total 154 bank employees participated in this study. Data was collected through a 40-item questionnaire on a five-point Likert Scale. The findings of this study showed that only organizational factors had a significant influence on work stress level. The study also revealed that the overall level of work stress among the respondents was moderate. While on the difference between the level of work stress by demographic factors, this study found that there was no statistically significant difference between these factors.
Keywords: Work stress, Bank Rakyat, influencing and demographic factors.

Book Review
Selling Destinations: Geography For The Travel Professional
Marc Mancini
Toronto: Nelson Education, 2013, 5th Edition, xii + 611 pp., paperback;
ISBN 978-0-17-650008-5
A. Kadir Din
Universiti Utara Malaysia