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Malaysian Management Journal (MMJ) Vol. 14, 2010

The Shen Model for Make-to-Order SME’s
Shaladdin Muda, Zulkifli Mokhtar & Semanat Abu Bakar
Faculty of Management and Economics
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
This paper describes a new model developed for make-to-order (MTO) sectors namely SHEN Principles, which aims to fill a gap in the world-class manufacturing (WCM) literature that concentrates on the characteristics of the larger traditional make-to-stock (MTS) sector. Using evidence from the literature, especially the MTO literature and the more comprehensive WCM models, a new model was devised. This was then modified in the light of case study evidence collected from the six MTO companies ranging from small-to medium-sized MTO companies. The model presented in this paper known as “SHEN Principle”, will be the current version of the model after all the modifications have been incorporated.
Keywords: SHEN principle, make-to-order, world class.

The Relationship Between Islamic Cultural Values and Corporate Social Accountability: Malaysian Muslim Accountants
Mohammed Salem Alazzabi & Mohamad Hisyam Selamat
UUM College of Business
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
This study investigates the relationship between Islamic cultural values and corporate social accountability among Muslim accountants in Malaysia. Two independent variables are proposed namely collectivism and power distance. Multivariate analysis was employed to examine the relationship between the variables in the framework and 124 respondents participated in this study. It is found that there is no relationship between collectivism and corporate social accountability. On the other hand, there is a significant positive relationship between power distance and corporate social accountability. In conclusion this study recommends that the understanding on zakat and equality should be given utmost priority in order to increase the level of social accountability among Muslim accountants in Malaysia. Such learning activities should be given continuous professional development (CPD) point by the Malaysian Institute of Accountants (MIA) as a motivation.
Keywords: Islamic culture, collectivism, power distance, corporate social accountability.

The Influence of Privacy and Trust on the Adoption of Internet Banking in Bangladesh
Mohammad A. Ashraf, Mirza M. D. Alam & Muhammad S. I. Noor
School of Business
United International University, Bangladesh
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
In Bangladesh, the expansion of Internet banking is beset with several infrastructural, institutional, and regulatory constraints. Despite the constraints, efforts by the Bangladesh Bank in modernizing the country’s payment system and commitment by the government in building ‘Digital Bangladesh’ have brought competition among the scheduled banks to improve banking services and rapidly adopt Internet banking on a wider scale. However, several opinion polls have revealed that many clients are found reluctant in adopting banking via the Internet because of their concerns about the privacy of the personal information they provide to online. Using the theory of planned behaviour as its theoretical basis, this study examined the relationships among beliefs about Internet privacy and trust, along with beliefs about perceived behavioural control and the expectations of important others and online banking behaviour. Data were collected from 327 university students. Analysis of the data indicates that beliefs about trust and privacy positively affect attitudes toward Internet banking, but attitude is found not to significantly affect Internet banking behaviour. Normative beliefs positively affect subjective norms which in turn affect Internet banking behaviour. Similarly, beliefs about self-efficacy regarding Internet banking positively affect perceived behavioural control, which in turn affects actual online banking behaviour.
Keywords: Internet banking, privacy, trust, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control.

Views on the Issue of Accountability in Non-Profit Organizations
Hasan Basri
Faculty of Economics
Syiah Kuala University, Indonesia
A.K. Siti-Nabiha
Graduate School of Business
Universiti Sains Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Over the past few decades, concerns have been raised about the accountability of non-profit organizations, especially on the adequacy of the current reporting and oversight mechanisms. Non-profit organizations are now increasingly demanded to become more accountable and demonstrate that they are making a difference and delivering results. However, the issues of non-profit accountability are problematic and more complex as compared to business organisations. As such, in this paper, pertinent issues of accountability in NPO are discussed. This is done by discussing the unique nature of non-profit organisations and their conflicting demands for accountability. The paper also elaborates the complex relationship of trust and its consequences and influences on the informal and also formal forms of accountability, specifically on the use of financial reporting.
Keywords: Accounting, accountability, non-profit organization, financial reporting, trust.

The Trade-Off Between Child Quantity and Child Quality and the Public Provision of Education: A Case Study in Rural Terengganu, Malaysia
Nor Azam Abdul Razak, Roslan Abdul Hakim & Russayani Ismail
UUM College of Business
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
The objective of this paper is to examine whether the theory of the child quantity-quality (CQQ) trade-off developed by Becker and Lewis (1973) is borne out by the data from a developing country. In brief, the theory states that households behave differently with respect to their mixture of child quantity and child quality depending on their standards of living (i.e. low-income households tend to choose child quantity at the expense of child quality, and the converse is true for high-income households). If the government provides enough support for education, however, this trade-off might be undermined. Using a sample of 885 children from a survey of 2,500 households in rural areas in Terengganu in 2009, we conducted an empirical analysis on the relationship between child quantity and child quality. In the baseline estimation as well as in a series of robustness check, our key findings are that there is a positive yet insignificant impact of child quantity on child quality. Accordingly, we take these results as mild evidence against the CQQ trade-off which, in turn, can be attributed to the magnitude of the public provision of education in Malaysia.
Keywords: Child quantity, child quality, CQQ trade-off, public provision of education.

Corporate Governance: Can Creditors Fit in with Companies’ Board of Directors?
Bashir Mande Tsafe, Zuaini Ishak & Kamil Md Idris
UUM College of Business
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
How do suppliers of finance make sure that firm managers enforce credit contracts, or do not invest in bad projects? This approach is missing in corporate governance research. To bridge the gap, we take steps towards developing a stakeholder perspective with the focus on examining the effects of creditor participation in a firm’s top decisions, in relation to board performance. Based on a sample of 154 questionnaire survey responses from Nigerian public firms, after relating all measured items to every construct in the statistical tests of exploratory factor analysis (EFA), we employed the use of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in a structural equation modelling (SEM) approach for an in-depth analysis to estimate how well the stakeholder model fits the data. Building upon the construct creditor participation, and based on the proposed theory, we confirmed three dimensions – protect risk projects, protect collateral, and enforce contracts – to be confirmed measures of the latent construct. Significant creditors such as banks interfering in the firm’s board, especially in major board decisions, can reduce the potentials of managers to engage in high-risk projects. This has significant positive effects on the board’s role performance. However, items in the two dimensions – protect collateral and enforce credit contracts show weak measurements after EFA. The consequences are a new research agenda for boards has been set. The agenda will focus on the suppliers of debt finance, as significant to the firms akin with their equity shareholders’ counterparts. This will create knowledge; reduce conflicts of interests, and exploitation; and ensure equitable distribution of firm value. The approach exposes firms to access more inclusive strategic inputs especially on important and less risky projects that will yield better margin and sustainable growth. This may stimulate further debates on other stakeholder researches that are vital to debt financiers and boards, thus becoming actionable for practitioners in decisions on projects.
Keywords: Corporate governance, board role performance, creditors, risk projects.

Book Review
Impression Management in the Workplace: Research, Theory and Practice
Minah Harun
Andrew J. Dubrin
Routledge, New York (2011), pp. 233
Synopsis Ɩ Full Text
A good comprehensive book is a rare find. If you are searching endlessly for a book that has it all, this is the one that presents every bit about impression management that one must know to get by in today’s world of advanced technology where everything is at our finger tips. The content covers from the most basic, that is, the meaning and nature of impression management (Chapter One), to the most complex yet a significant area that deals with the functional and dysfunctional consequences of impression management (Chapter Eleven).

Book Review
Hospitality Marketing: Principles and Practice (2nd ed.)
Jaafar Ali Mohd Ibrahim
David Bowie & Francis Buttle
(The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Idlington, Oxford OX5 1GB, UK)
2011, pp. 434
Synopsis Ɩ Full Text
The ideal person to write a review of books is definitely someone who has written a textbook himself. Bowie and Buttle indeed have made a promising effort to disseminate an important perspective on a subject related to hospitality. One might be quick to conclude that this text is just a dime a dozen and a window dressing of the first edition since not much space is dedicated to reflect on marketing theory and practice to the level of the state of the art. But this sort of unfair review is best left to those scholars who had experienced writing a textbook which is celebrated throughout the English speaking world, like Kotler or Drucker. The review here is a modest attempt to guide those who seek some idea and facts about the book before purchasing it.