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Malaysian Management Journal (MMJ) Vol. 4 No. 1 & 2 June/ December 2000

The Perception, Incidence and Management of Sexual Harassment at Workplace: A Malaysian Case
Sabitha Bagam Marican
School of Social Development
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
This paper focuses on perception and management of sexual harassment (SH) at the workplace. The study was carried out in Northern Malaysia among 586 public sector administrators. Results showed that 43% of the total male respondents and 47% of the female respondents have faced some kind of sexual harassment. Findings showed that the internal whistleblowing mechanism is also inadequate, though the respondents are quite confi­dent with the management in reporting SH cases. Finally, the article outline strategies that could ameliorate the occurrence of SH at the workplace as it is important to the organization and the priceless workers in the organization.

Importance-Performance Analysis on Tourism Destination: The Case of Kedah
Azilah Kasim
School of Tourism Management
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
This paper is focusing on the use of Importance-Performance (IP) Analysis to measure the destination's perfor­mance in offering tourism products. IP method is often used in research due to its simplicity, ease of use and usefulness in aiding decision-making processes. IP is also promising since it examines both expectations i.e. the importance of each attribute, and the performance of the attributes in fulfilling the expectation. Thus it aids tourism providers in determining what attributes are most important to tourists so that the attractiveness of the attributes can be improved. Using the data from the researcher's study on positioning in Kedah, a further analysis was carried out to determine Kedah's attractiveness in the eyes of its international market. Results of the IP analysis showed distinct difference in perception among clusters. For practical use of information gener­ated by the analysis, it was suggested that information on the two biggest clusters i.e. Cluster 2 and Cluster 3 be used to improve Kedah's tourism. The information revealed that according to Cluster 2, Kedah has to improve on attributes such as comfort at place of accommodation, friendliness of local people, services in. restaurants at place of accommodation, clean beaches, services in restaurants outside places of accommodation, standard of catering at restaurants outside places of accommodation, tourist information centre/booth, shopping facilities, local traffic, standard of catering at places of accommodation, isolated beaches, entertainment facilities, acces­sibility/transport and night life. For Cluster 3, we need to concentrate on improving attributes including beau­tiful scenery, comfort at place of accommodation, clean beaches, value for money, climate and weather; lack of crowdedness, services in restaurants at places of accommodation, standard of catering outside places of ac­commodation, services in restaurants outside places of accommodation, shopping facilities, tourists informa­tion centre, accessibility/transport and local traffic. The research recommended the need for Kedah's tourism planners and providers to pay attention to these attributes in planning and providing tourism offerings.
Keywords: Importance-Performance Analysis, destination attractiveness, tourism planning

Developing Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Taxonomy in Malaysia
Mohd Khairuddin Hashim
School of Management
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Mat Saad Abdullah
Faculty of Business and Management
Universiti Teknologi MARA
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
In most economies, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) consitute a variety of different firms encom­passing a wide range of industries. SMEs are heterogeneous: they differ at least in terms of their capabilities, stage of development, resources as well as requirements. The heterogeineity ofSMEs suggests that any systematic and rigorous attempt. to understand, explain and predict their behaviour should begin with the development of a taxonomy for them. A taxonomy provides a means for grouping and defining heterogenous SMEs - understand­ing their similarities and differences, their strengths and weaknesses. In the literature, several attempts to develop SMEs taxonomies have been made. Upon examining three of these taxonomies, it is found that SMEs can be classified in a number of different ways. Nonetheless, whilst this review of taxonomies literature is insightful in developing our own SMEs taxonomy, a careful study of the various features of SMEs is awaited if we were to develop a comprehensive taxonomy for the Malaysian SMEs.

Distinctive Capabilities and Performance: Empirical Evidence from Malaysian SMEs
Mohd Khairuddin Hashim
School of Management
Universal Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Despite the general notion that distinctive capabilities are crucial to the success affirms, empirical studies that focused on this strategic variable in SMEs remains limited. This study seeks to address this research issue by empirically investigating 100 SMEs in the Malaysian manufacturing sector. The findings of the study suggest that the SMEs studied established capabilities in several business functional areas. In addition, the results of the correlations indicate statistically significant positive relationship between distinctive capabilities and the performance of the SMEs in this study.

The Impact of Strategic Human Resource Management Practices on Productivity: The Case of the Malaysian Oil Palm Industry
Muhammad Aminu Bawa
Department of Economics
Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Nigeria
Muhamad Jantan
School of Management Universiti Sains Malaysia
Juhary Ali
School of Management
Universiti Sains Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
A substantial body of evidence in management theory and business practice has accumulated to show that Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) is associated with improved organizational performance. In spite of this evidence, empirical studies have shown that some organizations are slow in implementing those practices. One of the fundamental reasons behind this is the fact that as a body of practical knowledge, SHRM has seemingly lacked any theoretical research framework to underpin it. Thus, this paper is an attempt to address this problem by (1) contributing to theory building in strategic HRM, and (2) empirically testing the hypothesis that SHRM practices affect productivity. This study used a sample of 129 managers of oil palm estates from a national survey of estate managers reflecting the 1998 financial year Using linear regression techniques, the results suggest that (1) estates implement less strategic HI? practices than anticipated, and (2) some strategic HR practices were related to productivity. Managerial implications of the study were discussed.

Buoyancy Estimates of Malaysia's Tax System 1961 – 1998
Jeyapalan Kasipillai & Muszafarshah Mohd. Mustafa
School of Accountancy
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Several criteria are used to determine a 'good tax system' and they include administrative feasibility, ensuring burden of tax is spread fairly among taxpayers and tax buoyancy. Tax buoyancy measures the responsiveness of tax revenue to income growth. Previous studies have assumed a constant buoyancy estimate for the period under study and hence applied a double-log tax model (Mansfield, 1972; Choudhry, 1975; Byrne, 1983). In practice, however, tax buoyancies may change over time due to inflation, changing tax bases, improved tax administration and stricter enforcement of tax law by revenue authorities.
This study uses the Box-Cox tax model which allows the determination of inter-temporal tax buoyancies for the period 1961-1998. The results obtained revealed a steady decline in buoyancy estimates of less than one for both direct and indirect taxes implying inefficiencies in the tax system. Suggestions are made to revamp the current tax system by integrating existing indirect taxes such as sales and service tax into a single broad-based consumption tax.

The Importance of Non-Technical Skills in Accounting Graduates
Noor Azizi Ismail, Faisol Elham & Kamarul Bahrain Abdul Manaf
School of Accountancy
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Rosmawati Mamat
Matriculation College
Arau Perlis
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
The purpose of this study is to look at the quality issue from the perspective of one of the most important customers of higher education institutions-employers that hire the accounting graduates. Specifically, this study determines how well skill requirements match skill preparedness of accounting graduates. Results re­vealed that. five most important non-technical skills required by employers were the ability to perform assigned tasks, having initiative, teamwork, computer literacy, and problem solving. Employers, however; perceived that higher education institutions do not seem to prepare accounting graduates with all the skills required. The majority of employers agree that quality differences exists between accounting graduates ,from public and pri­vate institutions, and accounting graduates with and without professional qualifications. Finally, the study highlights suggestions to improve the quality of accounting graduates, and also recommendations for future research.

Ageing and Job Performance: Methodological Issues and Empirical Evidence
Hassan Ali
School of Management
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
This article reviews the methodological difficulties involved in research on age and job performance, It also examines the empirical evidence of the relationship between age and job performance. Research in this area has been conducted in both laboratory as well as occupational settings. Research in occupational settings has generally utilized either output measures or performance evaluations to measure job performance. Evidence from the literature has generally found no conclusive relationship between age and job performance. Studies have also found experience rather than age predicts job performance to a greater extent than age.

Book Review
Fifty Years of Development Economics: From Planning to Liberalization Essay in Honour of Prof. P.R.Brahmanande
Vesudevan, A., Nachare, D.M. & Karnik, A.V. (eds)
Himalaya Publishing House, Mumbai 400 004
1999 (First Edition)
Tatal Pages
Rupee 950
Reviewer: M.Y. Khan, Economis Advisor, Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) Mumbai, India
Synopsis Ɩ Full Text
Fifty Years of Development Economics, Essays in Hon­our of Professor P.R. Brahmananda, Editors A. Vasedevan, D.M. Nachane, A.V. Karnik, Foreword Lord Meghnad Desai, Himalaya Publishing House, Mumbai 400 004, First Edition - 1999.
This Volume is a collection of 30 essays, writ­ten in honour of Professor P. R. Brahmananda, a dis­tinguished economist in India. The essays in this book focus on a number of issues such as theory and meas­urement, Indian policy framework, snictural reforms, regional perspectives and provide rich insight on vari­ous subjects. The book also documents empirical stud­ies researched by well-known economists.
The first part of the book with 8 chapters deals with theory and measurement of money, inflation etc.. In this part, Nachne's paper on "Commodity Stand­ards: Resurrection of a Classical Theme" revisits the issues relating to the concept of money standard and questions, the role of the Govenment in controlling money. The author, while reviewing the role of gov­ernment in controlling the monetary policy in histori­cal retrospection, examines a umber of alternative proposals. He chooses, amongst others, commodity standard, and analyses it to find out its relevance to modetary policy. His contribution lies in explaining the Black-Fama-Hall (BFH) model-Commodity Basket Model. This model has been discounted as it does not take into account expextations and has difficulties in choosing the commodities for the basket. The BFH model has a few advantages like a stable unit of ac­count, subjects the government to financial discipline, can stipulate financial innovations and can insulate the economy from cyclical fluctuations originating domes­tically. Nachne's contribution lies in simplifying the analysis on the difficult subject.
Inflation has been a long drawn riddle in many countries like Brazil, Turkey, India. Control of infla­tion has been enforced in many countries to bring macro economic stability with high economic growth. Vasudevan, Bhoy and D hall have tried to trace equi­librium between inflation and growth rate in the In­dian context. They reached a conclusion that inflation, growth trends and their volatility, when analysed si­multaneously, reveal that a moderate rate of inflation on an average centered between 6 to 8 per cent in In­dian economy with low volatility, led to high growth rates. The authors have used regression robust error technique after taking recourse to a number alterna­tive empirical modes as suggested in the literature. The findings of the present exercise indicate that the thresh­old rate of inflation in the Indian context could be about 6 per cent; the output neutral inflation could be 4 per cent. The output effects are positive but marginally different from one another for the 5, 6 and 7 per cent inflation regimes. The negative output effects occur after 10 per cent inflation rate.