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Malaysian Management Journal (MMJ) Vol. 2 No. 2 December 1997

EC-92 and International Trade
A. M. Pharhizgari
Florida International University, Florida, USA
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Full execution of EG92 and its impact on intra-EC and international trade are investigated. Theoretical aspects of such integration are analyzed-and a model capturing the trade creation and the trade diversion effect of EC-92 is designed and empirically tested. The implications of the results in terms of intra­-EC trade and international trade are pointed out.
Keywords: EC-92, Trade Creation, Trade Diversion, Econometrics

Export Marketing Behaviour of Resource-Based Firms in Malaysia
Osman Mohamad
Universiti Sains Malaysia
Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
Colin N. Wheeler
University of Strathclyde
United Kingdom
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
This article is concerned with the export market strategy adapted by manufacturers-exporters in resource- based industries. The characteristics, export performance and marketing strengths of firms adapting a market concentration strategy versus firms adapting a market diversification strategy are investigated. The results show that firms adopting a diversification strategy are larger, have more export experience and higher percentage of foreign equity participation, and achieved better export performance compared to firms adapting a market concentration strategy. The former also exhibits greater commitment to exporting and are significantly different from the latter as regards to sources of marketing competitive strengths.

An Empirical Study of R&D Investment Patterns, Effects, and Critical Factors in High-Tech Industries in Taiwan : The Case of the Hsinchu Science-Based Industrial Park
Po-Young Chu
Department of Management Science
National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan
Pao-Long Chang
Institute of Management Science
National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan
Ming-Yung Ting
Department of Information Management
Ming-Chuan University, Taipei, Taiwan
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
This research is an empirical analysis of high-tech firms at the Hsinchu Science-based Industrial Park (HSIP) in Taiwan. In this study, three main areas were systematically evaluated: the patterns of R&D intensity along the company's attributes of capital source, industrial category, and age; the relationships between firms' R&D investment and performance; and the critical factors of successful R&D management.
Keywords : High-tech firms, Hsinchu Science-based Industrial Park (HSIP), patterns of R&D intensity, company attributes, company performance, critical factors of successful R&D management.

Transnational Management-Consulting Firms in Thailand and ASEAN
Qadeer Hussain & Hafiz Mirza
University of Bradford Management Centre
United Kingdom
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
The expansion and global role of management consulting services have become a topic of some interest in the context of the internationalization of services. The objectives, motivations, and strategies of Transnational Management-Consulting Firms (TMCFs) in the Thai market is the core subject of this paper. In addition, this paper presents performance and operational aspects of TMCFs in Thailand. Since TMCFs may enter foreign markets through a number of entry modes, their entry mode preferences in this market are analyzed in the context of their objectives, and local and regional conditions. This analysis is based on a recently completed interview-based survey of TMCFs in Thailand and is therefore a timely examination of a crucial subject—especially given the ongoing debate about "Services and Development". Firm, home and host-country related and international factors are separately identified and their interactions discussed. The future prospects for TMCFs in Thailand and ASEAN are also discussed.

The Japanese Production System and Its International Transferability
Hiroshi Kumon
Department of Sociology Hosei University, Japan
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
The Japanese production system has an ethnic or national basis. There are considered to be three production components of the system-shop-floor-centred work organization, waste-free production control, and participative management in the context of cooperative labour relations. For each of these, it is possible to set up a Japanese-type'. The author is conducting research into the overseas operations of Japanese subsidiaries in automobile assembly. Japanese multinational enterprises presumably try to apply the system to their overseas operations to take advantage of its strengths; however, given that they have moved into a foreign country, presumably Japanese enterprises have to adapt to the management environment of the local area. This research investigates the following questions: (i) Does this 'application' and 'adaptation' result in a dilemma? (ii) What is actually being applied and what has not been possible to apply? (iii) How well is the balance between 'application' and 'adaptation' being achieved? According to surveys of Japanese manufacturing plants in North America, Asia, and Europe, the application of the system is possible. Of course this does not mean that it can be applied 100%. The pattern of application varies according to the management strategy of the Japanese enterprises.
Keywords : Japanese production system, shop-floor-centred work organization, waste-free production control, participative management, application and adaptation, hybridization, application pattern.

How Strategic Alliances Change: The Case of the Japanese Semiconductor Business
Yoshiya Teramoto
Economics Faculty, Hokkaido University, Hokkaido
Naoto Iwasaki
Economics Faculty, Seijo University, Tokyo
Tohru Takai
Economics Faculty, Obirin University, Tokyo
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
The structure of the semiconductor industry has been changing recently. Japanese companies have lost their competitiveness, while their US and Korean counterparts have been strengthening theirs. At the same time, the map of the inter-firm relationships in the IT industry is changing. Patterns of strategic alliances in the semiconductor business have been evolving and have become complicated. We will investigate the transformation of strategic alliances, and we will propose how Japanese semiconductor companies can recover through a new type of alliance.
Keywords : Strategic Alliance, Vertical Alliance, Single-front Alliance, Multi-dimensional Alliance

Profit, Entry and Changes in Concentration: The Case of the Malaysian Food Manufacturing Sector
Mohamad-Hanapi Mohamad
Universiti Mara Malaysia,
Kedah, Malaysia
Introduction Ɩ Full Text
One of the major concerns of the body of economic analyses surrounding the theory of the firm is whether the profit behavior of oligopolistic industries differs from that of competitive industries. Theory suggest that where small groups of sellers accounts for a substantial proportion of an industry’s output, the recognition of mutual interdependence will result years significant progress has been made in developing a theoretical model to explain concentrating impact among consumer goods industries, and a number of empirical studies have been carried out to test the hypotheses which have been advanced. The findings however, are not conclusive. The work of Ekelund and Maurice (1969) has shown that concentration has no effect on profitability. Mann, Henning and Meehan (1967) on the other hand contended that the two are intimately connected. Similar findings were recorded in the work of Comanor and Wilson (1967) as well as that of Collins and Preston (1969).

R&D Marketing Integration in New Product Development: The Case of the Telecommunications Industry in Malaysia (Preliminary Findings)
Jamil Bojei
Universal Putra Malaysia
Selangor, Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Developing new products in a complex environment, such as in the telecommunications industry, involves significant integrated effort-particularly between that of R&D and Marketing. The failure to integrate R&D and Marketing in new product development can result in over-designed, over-priced, and either obsolete or radically-advanced products with little customer value. This paper attempts to offer insights into R&D and Marketing integration in. the telecommunications industry in Malaysia. In general, only a few telecommunication companies have achieved effective R&D-Marketing integration which is significant in certain areas requiring the integration.
Keywords: R&D, marketing, integrated effort, R&D-Marketing integration, new product development, telecommunications industry.